Tejerazo, El

Tejerazo, El
   The popular name given to the attempted military coup staged by the army and the Civil Guard on 23 February, 1981 (also known as 23-F), El Tejerazo takes its name from Antonio Tejero Molina, a Civil Guard colonel who led the storming of the parliament building while the Congress of Deputies was in session. The coup was the culmination of a long process of military conspiracy which had begun shortly after the beginning of the transition to democracy in 1975. The traditionally right-wing armed forces were suspicious of democracy in general, and disturbed by what they perceived as the government's incapacity to control terrorism.
   The object of the coup was to force King Juan Carlos I to annul the constitution of 1978, suspend the Cortes, and rule with a military council. Many senior officers expected the King to collaborate with the movement, but the King telephoned the Captains-General of all the military regions, reminding them of their oath to the constitution and their obedience to him as Commander-in-Chief of all the armed forces. The King also appeared on nationwide television on the night of 23–4 February in the uniform of Commander-in-Chief, declaring his support for constitutionalism, and the conspirators soon found themselves isolated. Those most deeply involved were tried by court martial, but received relatively light sentences, increased after an appeal by the state prosecutor. Generals Alfonso Armada and Jaime Milans del Bosch, and Colonel Tejero received sentences of 30 years each, but Armada and Milans were released, in 1988 and 1992 respectively, on grounds of age and good conduct. The failure of the attempted coup led to an upsurge of renewed popular support for democracy, and helped to overcome the sense of disillusionment with the state which had set in around 1979, caused by continuing economic problems and terrorism. The other effect of the coup was that it encouraged the government of Leopoldo Calvo Sotelo to speed up the negotiations for Spain's entry into NATO, a process which eventually produced increased professionalism and depoliticization of the armed forces.
   Further reading
   - Carr, R. and Fusi, J.P. (1979) Spain: Dictatorship to Democracy, London: Allen & Unwin (a thorough and scholarly account of the transition to democracy).
   - Newton, M.T. with Donaghy, P.J. (1997) Institutions of Modern Spain: A Political and Economic Guide, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (a standard reference work).
   - Preston, P (1986) The Triumph of Democracy in Spain, London: Methuen (a lively account of the issues and personalities involved in the political developments of contemporary Spain).

Encyclopedia of contemporary Spanish culture. 2013.

Игры ⚽ Нужен реферат?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Tejerazo — Der Putsch vom 23. Februar 1981 (in Spanien umgangssprachlich 23 F oder auch El Tejerazo nach einem der Beteiligten genannt), war ein missglückter Versuch von Teilen der Guardia Civil und des Militärs, die Demokratie in Spanien zu beenden und… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • El Tejerazo — Der Putsch vom 23. Februar 1981 (in Spanien umgangssprachlich 23 F oder auch El Tejerazo nach einem der Beteiligten genannt), war ein missglückter Versuch von Teilen der Guardia Civil und des Militärs, die Demokratie in Spanien zu beenden und… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • golpismo —    Golpismo, a tendency to engage in golpes or coups d état, was the word used in the Spain of the 1970s and 1980s to designate the attitudes of hard right elements in the armed forces towards the emergent democratic state. The armed forces had… …   Encyclopedia of contemporary Spanish culture

  • armed forces —    Until well into the 1980s, the armed forces in Spain constituted a political institution rather than a means of defence. Throughout the nineteenth century, the army had regarded itself as the ultimate arbiter of national life, enriching… …   Encyclopedia of contemporary Spanish culture

  • Oliart, Alberto — b. 1928, Mérida (Badajoz)    Businessman and politician    One of the many prominent members of the business community who participated in Suárez s UCD governments. He has sat on the boards of some of Spain s biggest banks, as well as those of a… …   Encyclopedia of contemporary Spanish culture

  • Republicanism in the United Kingdom — is the movement which seeks to remove the British monarchy and replace it with a republic that has a non hereditary head of state. The method by which the head of state should be chosen is not agreed upon, with some favouring an elected president …   Wikipedia

  • Antonio Tejero — Molina (born 1932, Málaga) was a Spanish Lieutenant Colonel, and the most visible figure in the attempted coup d état also known as the Tejerazo against the Spanish democracy on February 23 1981.He entered the Guardia Civil in 1951 and was the… …   Wikipedia

  • 23-F — is the name given to a failed coup d état in Spain that started on February 23, 1981 and ended the next day on February 24, 1981. It is also known as El Tejerazo from the name of its most visible figure, Antonio Tejero, who conducted the most… …   Wikipedia

  • Terra Lliure — (meaning “Free Land” in Catalan) was a leftist and Catalan nationalist separatist armed group. It was considered a terrorist group by the Spanish government. It was formed in 1979 and disbanded in 1995.The group published official statements and… …   Wikipedia

  • Flint School — The Flint School was a preparatory school founded by educators George and Betty Stoll. Based in Sarasota, Florida, United States, it operated aboard first one, then two, school ships from 1969 to 1981. Girls as well as boys aged 12 to 18 sailed… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”